This PSEB 12th Class History Notes Chapter 3 Political, Social and Economic Conditions of the Punjab in the beginning of the 16th Century will help you in revision during exams.
PSEB 12th Class History Notes Chapter 3 Political, Social and Economic Conditions of the Punjab in the beginning of the 16th Century
- The political condition of Punjab was quite deplorable.
- Punjab was under the Sultanate of Delhi which was under the Lodhi Sultans at that time.
- In 1469 A.D. the Sultan of Delhi, Bahlol Lodhi appointed Tatar Khan Lodhi as the Governor of Punjab.
- Tatar Khan Lodhi was killed during an unsuccessful revolt against the Lodhi Sultan.
- In 1500 A.D. the new Lodhi Sultan, Sikandar Lodhi appointed Daulat Khan Lodhi as the Governor of Punjab.
- As soon as Ibrahim Lodhi became the new Sultan, Daulat Khan Lodhi started hatching conspiracies against him.
- Daulat Khan Lodhi invited Babar to invade India.
- Babar invaded Punjab five times between 1519 and 1526 A.D.
- During his fifth invasion, Babar defeated Daulat Khan Lodhi to establish control over Punjab.
- On 21st April 1526 A.D., Babar defeated Ibrahim Lodhi in the First Battle of Panipat.
- Consequently, Punjab slipped from the hands of the Lodhi dynasty into the hands of the Mughals.
- At the beginning of the 16th century, the social condition of Punjab was deplorable.
- Society was divided into two major sects the Hindus and the Muslims Related to the ruling elite class, the Muslims had several special privileges.
- The Muslim society was divided into upper, middle, and lower classes.
- The condition of Muslim women was pitiable.
- The Hindus were in majority but they were deprived of their rights.
- Hindu society was divided into several castes and sub-castes.
- The elite class of society ate delicious foods and wore expensive clothes.
- The lower classes wore ordinary clothes and ate frugal meals.
- At that time hunting, polo, animal fights, chess, dance, music, and cards, etc. were sources of entertainment.
- Education was imparted in mosques, madrasas, and temples.
- The economic condition of Punjab was very good.
- The main occupation of the people of Punjab was agriculture.
- The main crops grown here were wheat, barley, maize, rice, and sugarcane.
- It had rich harvests Industry was the other main occupation of the people.
- The most important industry was the textile industry.
- Besides this, there were other industries that manufactured leather goods, arms, utensils, toys, and articles of ivory.
- The occupation of cattle rearing was also prevalent.
- The domestic and foreign trade of Punjab was also quite prosperous.
- The foreign trade of Punjab was carried on with countries like Afghanistan, Iran, Arabia, Syria, Tibet, and China, etc.
- Lahore and Multan were the two most popular towns in Punjab.
- Due to low prices, ordinary people also enjoyed a good standard of living.