This PSEB 12th Class History Notes Chapter 19 Ranjit Singh’s relations with Afghanistan and his N.W.F. Policy will help you in revision during exams.
PSEB 12th Class History Notes Chapter 19 Ranjit Singh’s relations with Afghanistan and his N.W.F. Policy
Ranjit Singh’s Relations with Afghanistan:
Maharaja Ranjit Singh’s relations with Afghanistan were divided into four stages:
- This stage started in 1797 A.D. and ended in 1812 A.D.
- In 1797 A.D. when Ranjit Singh took over the reins of ShukarchakiUMisl, Shah Zaman was the emperor of Afghanistan.
- Ranjit Singh sent his guns that had fallen into the Jhelum river Pleased with him, he acknowledged Maharaja Ranjit Singh’s rule over Lahore.
- In 1803 A.D., Shah Shuja became the ruler of Afghanistan.
- Taking advantage of his weakness, Maharaja Ranjit Singh established control over the areas of Kasur, Jhang, and Sahiwal, etc.
- This stage was from 1813 to 1834 A.D.
- According to the treaty signed at Rohtasgarh in 1813 A.D., the combined armed forces of Maharaja Ranjit Singh and the Afghan Wazir Fateh Khan attacked Kashmir.
- Fateh Khan duped the emperor.
- On 13th July 1813 A.D., at a place called Hazro, the first battle was fought between the Afghans and Sikhs Fateh Khan was defeated in it.
- Maharaja’s occupation of Peshawar led to the terrible battle of Naushera on 14th March 1823 A.D.
- The Afghans were defeated in the battle also.
- On 6th May 1834 A.D., Peshawar was completely annexed to the Sikh kingdom.
- This stage was from 1834 to 1837 A.D.
- Dost Muhammad Khan, the ruler of Afghanistan was infuriated because of the Maharaja’s occupation of Peshawar.
consequently, he declared the Jihad.
- But because of Ranjit Singh’s diplomacy; he had to flee without fighting the battle.
- In 1837 A.D., the Battle of Jamrud was fought between the Sikhs and the Afghans.
- The Sikhs were victorious in the battle but Hari Singh Nalwa was martyred.
- After this, the Afghan soldiers never faced Peshawar.
- This stage was from 1838 to 1839 A.D.
- Seeing the growing influence of Russia, the British planned to make Shah Shuja the new ruler of Afghanistan.
- On 26th June 1838 A.D., the Tripartite Treaty was signed between the British, Shah Shuja, and Maharaja Ranjit Singh.
- On 27th June 1839 A.D., Maharaja Ranjit Singh expired.
- In this way, the tables always stood in favour of Maharaja Ranjit Singh as far as Sikh.
- Afghan relations were concerned.
North-West Frontier Policy of Maharaja Ranjit Singh:
- The problem of the North-West frontier always remained a problem for the rulers of Punjab and India.
- It was from here that the foreign invaders attacked India.
- The turbulent tribes of this region were always uncontrollable.
- Between 1831 A.D. and 1836 A.D., Maharaja conquered the regions of Dera Ghazi Khan, Tonk, Bannu, and Peshawar, etc.
- Maharaja never tried to occupy Afghanistan.
- He sent several military expeditions against the turbulent Afghan tribes.
- Several new forts were built on the North-West Frontier.
- The specially trained army was maintained there.
- Military governors were appointed there.
- Special provisions were made for the welfare of these tribes.
- Maharaja Ranjit Singh’s North-West Frontier Policy was successful to quite an extent.