This PSEB 12th Class History Notes Chapter 16 Origin and Growth of the Sikh Misls and their Nature of Organization will help you in revision during exams.
PSEB 12th Class History Notes Chapter 16 Origin and Growth of the Sikh Misls and their Nature of Organization
Meaning of the word Misl:
- According to Cunningham and Princep “Misl’ is an Arabic word, which means equal.
- David Octerlony says that the word ‘Misl’ means such tribe or community as had established its independent rule over certain regions of Punjab.
- Some historians feel that the word ‘Misl’ means to file.
Origin of the Misls:
- The origin of the Misls did not take place with any pre-conceived plan at some fixed time.
- A new era of atrocities on the Sikhs by the Mughal Governor began.
- Nawab Kapoor Singh organised the different Jathas into two groups.
- Buddha Dal and Taruna Dal.
- On 29th March 1748 A.D., the. Dal Khalsa was found on the Baisakhi day at Amritsar.
- Twelve Jathas were organised under the Dal Khalsa.
- These Jathas began to be called the ‘Misls’.
Growth of Sikh Misls:
A brief description of the growth and history of the Misls are as follows:
- Nawab Kapoor Singh was the founder of Faizalpuria Misl.
- It included the areas of Jalandhar, Ludhiana, Patti, Nurpur, and Behrampur.
- The founder of the Ahluwalia Misl was Jassa Singh Ahluwalia.
- It included the areas of Sirhind and Kapurthala.
- The founder of Ramgarhia Misl was Khushal Singh.
- It included the areas of Dipalpur, Kalanaur, Batala, Hargobindpur, Quadian, Urmur Tanda, Kartarpur and Haripur.
- The founder of the Shukarchakia Misl was Charat Singh.
- He made Gujranwala his capital.
- Maharaja Ranjit Singh also belonged to this Misl.
- The other Misls were Bhangi Misl, Phulkian Misl, Kanahia, Misl, Dallewalia Misl, Shahid Misl, Nakkai Misl, and Karorsinghia Misl.
Administration of the Misls:
- The Gurmata was the central organisation of the Misls Its decisions were considered by the Sikhs as the dictates of their Guru.
- The leader of each Misl was called Sardar.
- Each Sardar had a number of Misldars under him.
- The Misls were divided into many districts.
- The village was the smallest unit of the Misl administration.
- During the times of the Misls, the chief source of income was land revenue.
- The judicial system of the Sikh Misls was simple.
- According to modern historians, during the Misl period, the total strength of the Sikh army was 1 lakh.