Punjab State Board PSEB 11th Class Sociology Book Solutions Chapter 5 Culture Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.
PSEB Solutions for Class 11 Sociology Chapter 5 Culture
Sociology Guide for Class 11 PSEB Culture Textbook Questions and Answers
Answer the following very short answer questions in 1-15 words each:
State the basic elements of culture.
Traditions, social norms and values are the basic elements of culture.
Who called culture a ‘total way of life of the people?
These words are of Clyde Kluckhohn.
In what way is culture transmitted in non-literate societies?
Because culture is a learned behaviour, that’s why in non-literate societies culture is transmitted through learning.
Give a broad classification of culture.
Culture is of two types-material culture and non-material culture.
Name few examples of non-material culture.
Views, norms, values, habits, ideals, traditions etc.
Who gave the theory of cultural lag?
The theory of cultural lag was given by William F. Ogburn.
Answer the following short answer questions in 30-35 words each:
What is culture ?
Our ways of living, philosophy, feelings, views, machines; tools etc. all material and non-material things and this is culture. All these things are produced and used by group. So, culture is that on which we work upon, think on it and keep it.
What is cultural lag ?
Culture consists of two parts-material and non-material. Due to new inventions, change comes very quickly in material culture but our views, traditions etc. i.e. non-material culture does not change very quickly. As a result, gap is created between the two which is known as cultural lag.
What are social norms ?
Each society makes certain rules for the behaviour of its members and these are known as norms. So, norms are few directions for behaviour. Norms regulate and direct the behaviour of individuals. They are very important aspects of culture.
What are the central values of modern India ?
Democratic system, equality, justice, freedom, secularism etc. are the central values of modern India. Each society has its own central values. Small communities stress on any specific value but large societies stress on universal values.
Mention some values of traditional Indian society.
Each society is having different values. One society streses on one value and other society stresses on the other. Important values of traditional Indian society are detachment, materialism and religion, attainment of four purusharthas, dharma, artha, kama and moksha.
How is the cognitive component of culture expressed ?
The cognitive components of culture are expressed with the help of imagination, literature, art, religion and scientific theories. Views are expressed in literature and in this way the cognitive aspect of culture is preserved.
Answer the following short answer questions in 75-85 words each:
How is culture a total way of life of the people ?
There is no denying fact that culture is a total way of life of the people. Whatever we have is our culture. Our views, ideals, habits, clothes, money, property etc. and whatever humans have achieved till today is our culture. If we separate all these from human life, nothing will be left in it and then human life will reach the level of early man. Yet each society has its different culture but they have certain elements which are common everywhere. So, we can say that culture is a total way of human life.
Write a note on material and non-material culture.
The meaning of material culture is by that culture in which all the man made things are included. This culture is concrete because we can see or touch it such as scooter, T.V. table, chair, pen, bus, car etc. All these things are concrete and thus a part of material culture.
In non-material culture, all the things are included which are abstract in nature. We can neither see non touch them. We can just feel them such as traditions, customs, values, skills, norms etc. All such things are abstract so non-material culture is abstract in nature.
Discuss in brief the basic elements of culture.
- Customs and traditions are the types of organised social behaviour which are used again and again. They are permanent ways of.behaviour. Each society has its own customs and traditions.
- Norms are also very essential elements of culture. It is expected from each person to behave in a specified way. Norms are the established ways of behaviour shared by the members of a group.
- Values are also its inseparable part. Each society has its own values and it is expected from every one to accept them.
‘Culture is learned behaviour’. Explain the statement with suitable examples.
There is no denying the fact that humans learn their culture. It is not a biological trait which one gets from his parents in the form of genes. An individual learns culture gradually through the process of learning. No one is having views and ideas when he takes birth but all these he learns while living in society after interacting with others. Every type of action or activity is learned only while living in society. So, it is clear that culture is learned behaviour.
Answer the following short answer questions in 250-300 words each:
How does the understanding of culture in social analysis differ from the everyday use of the word ‘culture’ ?
The meaning of everyday use of the word ‘culture’ is very much different from the meaning given by sociologists. In every usage, culture is limited only to art or life style of different countries. But the meaning given by sociology is very much different. Sociology says that whatever man has achieved from his early life till today is his culture. Traditions, ideas, norms, values, mores, chair, table, car, pen, books, written knowledge etc. Whatever man has achieved only while living in society is his culture, So, the meaning of culture given in both the senses is different from each other.
What do you mean by culture ? Highlight the characteristics of culture.
The most important thing which differentiates humans from animals is the culture which humans have but animals don’t. The most important thing which human has is his culture. If the culture would be taken away from them then nothing would be left with them. In all the organisms of the world, only humans have the capability to make and preserve their culture.
Culture comes out of the interactions of humans. Culture not only comes out of human interaction but it shows the way to future’s human interactions. Culture helps in the formation of personality of a man and helps him to live in society. Culture makes that type of atmosphere in which man becomes capable of doing functions of society. In this way man and culture are connected very deeply with each other because culture differentiates man from animals.
Culture, is the mest important feature of human society. According to Aristotle, “Man is a social animal.” If we will describe the differences between man and animal then this culture will be the decisive factor of difference between them. Man himself creates his culture and has the capacity to preserve it for its future generation. Actually it is the product of human interactions #nd on the basis of this culture we can differentiate one society from the other.
We cannot understand human society without understanding the culture because culture exerts a lot of effect on the social life. Cultural factor is also an important factor of social change. In this way we can say that man is not only a biological man but is a cultural man as well. In common language culture is equated with education means literate person is a cultured man and illiterate person is a non-cultured man. But this meaning of culture is not correct. Sociology takes its meaning in very wide sense. According to sociologists any thing which man has made to fulfil his needs is culture.
1. According to Maclver and Page, “It is the expression of our nature in our modes of living and thinking, in our everyday course, in art, in literature, in religion, in recreation and enjoyment.”
2. According to Bierstedt, “Culture is the complex whole that consists of everything we think and do and have as members of society.”
3. According to Ogburn and Nimkoff, “It is that part of man’s total environment into which he alone is born. It consists buildings, tools, wearing apparel, art, science, religion and all the ways of doing things which man learns.”
4. According to Majumdar, “Culture is the sum total of human achievement, material as well as non-material capable of transmission, sociologically
i.e. tradition and communication critically as well as horizontally.”
5. According to Lundberg, “Culture refers to the social mechanism of behaviour and to the physical and symbolic product of these behaviours.”
From the given definitions it is clear that all those things are included in culture which a man learns while living in society like art, law, feelings, customs, ways of wearing, eating, literature, knowledge, belief etc.
All these things are the part of culture and they do not work separately but they work with each other and form an organization. This organization is known as culture. In short, the things which a man has learnt and whatever he has got from his ancestors as heritage is known as culture. In heritage tools, ways of behaviour, ways of science, ways of doing work are included.
Functions or Characteristics of Culture:
1. Culture is transmitted from generation to generation. Culture is transmitted from one generation to another because a child learns many things from the behaviour of his parents. Man learns a lot from the achievements of his ancestors. No one wants to start any thing from the beginning and that’s why he takes care of that work which his ancestors have done.
This transmission is going on from the ages and that’s why every one gets separate personality. No one brings any thing with his birth. He needs to learn every thing by living in society with his parents, grandparents etc. In’this way culture is transmitted from one generation to another.
2. Culture is social. Culture cannot become the personal property of an individual. It is social because neither one man can make the whole culture and nor it is property of anyone. When any one invents any thing then that invention is not his personal thing but becomes property of society because that thing will be used by the whole society.
In this way different things of our culture are used by society. Any thing can be called a part of the culture at that time when that thing will be accepted by most of the people of society. In this way universality of that thing-is an essential element of culture. So culture is not individual but is social.
3. Culture can be learned. Culture is learned by humans. It is not a biological quality which a person gets from his parents by birth. Man learns culture by socialization. No one brings thoughts and ideas by birth but he learns them by interacting with other persons of society. Every type of work is learned by society. From this it is clear that culture is a learned behaviour.
4. Culture fulfills needs of society. If any thing is invented then that thing is invented because man needs that thing. In this way every thing of culture comes out so that the needs of man could be fulfilled. Why man learnt to grow wheat, because he needs wheat for his hunger. In this way man learnt to grow food and this learned behaviour is transmitted from generation to generation.
Needs are not only biological but are sociocultural also. With hunger, man needs love and sympathy which a man learns while living in society. In this way different parts of culture fulfil different needs of society. Whichever part of culture is unable to fulfil the needs of society, gradually it comes to an end.
5. Changes often come in culture. Culture never stops at one place but often changes because nothing is unchangeable in the world. Change is law of nature and if change is necessary then culture is also changeable. Culture fulfills all the needs of society which generally change with the passage of time because situations are not the same all the times.
With the change in situations, needs also change which means, the methods of fulfilling those needs also change. For example during earlier times agriculture was done with old means like plough but with the increase of population, needs were also increased and that’s why now agriculture is being done with tractors and combines to fulfil the increased needs. So with the change in situation, culture is also bound to change.
6. One culture consists of many cultures. In every culture we can see some common norms, traditions, feelings, rituals, behaviour etc. but with that we can see many types of ways of eating, wearing, ways of living, behaviour, etc. From this it is clear that one culture consists of many cultures. For example we can see many subcultures in Indian culture because every one has its own ways of living, behaving, eating etc. from which it is clear that one culture has many cultures.
Explain the two types of culture in detail.
Culture is an important factor for social change. With the change in culture, society also changes because it is the social heritage of society. Famous sociologists Ogburn and Nimkoff,’in their book ‘Hand Book of Sociology’, have given two types of culture and these are :
(1) Material Culture
(2) Non-material Culture.
1. Material Culture:
Material culture is artificial culture. Its main feature is that all the things made by man are included in this. Material culture is related to concrete things. We can touch and see all the things of material culture. For example machines, tools, means of transport, books, phone, etc. Material culture is related with inventions of man.
New technological knowledge is also included in material culture. Everything is included in this type of culture which is made, changed and transmitted till today. These material aspects of culture help its members to define their behaviour. For example the people engaged in agriculture have occupation but they use different implements and tools. All these are the‘‘parts of material culture.
2. Non-material Culture:
Important feature of non-material culture is that it is abstract. Abstract means those things which we cannot touch, and see. We can only feel them. For example religion, traditions, rituals, customs, art, literature, music, values, ideas etc. are included in non-material culture. According to Ogburn and Nimkoff, culture is divided in two parts for the easiness of subject or just for analytical purposes.
Write a detailed note on cultural lag.
First of all the concept of cultural lag was used by Ogburn to understand the problems of society and conditions of conflict. Ogburn was the first sociologist who has given the detailed meaning of the concept of Cultural Lag. Yet other sociologists like Spencer, Sumner, Muller etc. have also used the concept of cultural lag in their writings but Ogburn has used this concept in his book ‘Social Change’ to understand social disorganization problems and conflict. In sociology, this concept was accepted widely.
Meaning of Cultural Lag. According to Ogburn and Nimkoff, change in different parts of culture never comes with the same speed. The speed of change of one part is more as compared to the other. But culture is a system. It is made up of many parts. Its different parts are inter-connected and inter-related. This system of culture can be maintained if the change in all arts of culture will come at the same speed. Actually what happens is that if one part of culture changes due to any invention then another part of the culture, which depends upon that part, also changes. But the change in the second part comes very late.
How much time will this second part take, depends upon the nature of the second part. This lateness goes on for many years because of which problem comes in the system. This lag in different parts of culture is known as Cultural Lag. According to Ogburn, “The thesis is that the various parts of modern culture are not changing at the same rate, some parts are changing much more rapidly than others, and that since there is co-relation and inter-dependence of parts, a rapid change in one part of our culture requires re-adjustments through other changes in the various co-related parts of culture. where one part of culture changes first, through some discovery or invention and occasional changes in some part of culture-dependent upon it, there frequently is a delay in the changes occasioned in the dependent part of the culture.”
The meaning of lag is to stay behind. Ogburn has given example to explain the meaning of ‘Lag’. According to him, anything is made of two parts. If change comes in one part of that thing then this change will definitely affect the other parts. This part, which is affected by that change, slowly and slowly changes automatically. These changes come slowly and slowly take some time. This difference of time is known as lag or to stay behind. Ogburn has explained the concept of cultural lag in this way.
According to him, culture has two parts that are interrelated. If ally change comes in one part then the second part is bound to be affected by that change. This second part slowly and slowly adapts itself to change and makes itself according to that change. But this adaptation takes some time. This difference of time, which is there between ‘change and adaptation, is known as cultural lag. When any part of culture moves forward with some development or invention and the second part lags behind then we can say that cultural lag exists.
According to Ogburn, culture has two parts (1) Material Culture (2) Non-material Culture. In material culture, all those things are included which we can touch and see like a machine, table, chair, book, T.V. scooter, etc., and in non-material culture all those things are included which we cannot see and touch, only we can feel them. For example, habits, thought, behaviour, feelings, customs, etc. Both parts are closely interrelated. If change comes in any part then the second part is bound to change.
This law is also applicable to material and non-material cultures. Changes often come in material culture and these changes come very fast because of new inventions. Material culture changes very fast but the speed of changes in non-material is very slow. That’s why because of rapid changes material culture moves forward but non-material culture, whose speed is very slow, lags behind. In this way, the lagging behind of the non-material culture from the material culture is known as cultural lag.
According to Ogburn, change comes in material culture with great speed because people want to use material things in a proper way. To use material things we need money and there is no need to move away from traditions and thoughts. For example, we are ready to buy Fridge, T.V., Scooter, Car, etc. but are not willing to change our customs and traditions. With one more example everything will be clear.