Punjab State Board PSEB 11th Class Sociology Important Questions Chapter 3 Society, Community and Association Important Questions and Answers.
PSEB 11th Class Sociology Important Questions Chapter 3 Society, Community and Association
Multiple Choice Questions
Who said this: “Man is a social animal.”?
What is the need of similarities and differences for the formation of society?
(а) To make relations
(b) For social progress
(c) To take forward society from demographic point of view
(d) All of these.
(d) All of these.
According to Marx, which was the first historical society?
(a) Early communism
(a) Early Communism.
Why an individual makes relations with others?
(a) To fulfil his needs
(b) To achieve his objectives
(c) To save himself from other’s selfish interests
(d) All of these.
(d) All of these.
Man and society are considered ………… to each other?
(d) none of these.
Which of these is available in society?
(d) Cooperation and Conflict.
(d) Cooperation and Conflict.
An organisation of individuals formed to achieve common objectives ………..
is known as
(a) a society
(b) a class
(c) a group
(d) an organisation.
(a) a society.
Which of these is not a community?
(a) People of Kerala in Delhi
(b) People born in USA
(c) Trade union movement
(d) None of these.
(d) None of these.
Society is the web of …………
(a) Social norms
(b) Mutual relations
(c) Individual relations
(d) None of these.
(b) Mutual relations.
What is the relation between an individual and society?
(a) Man is social by nature and he cannot live alone
(b) Man lives in society to fulfil his needs
(c) Society makes personality of an individual
(d) All of these.
(d) All of these.
Fill in the Blanks :
- Society is made up of ………….
- Community develops automatically with the ………….. of people.
- …………… is established deliberately to achieve certain goals.
- Membership of …………… depends upon one’s wish.
- Society is …………… in nature.
- Totem is of great importance in …………. society.
- Membership of is …………… formal.
- social relations
- An association
Membership of society depends upon one’s wish.
Society is made up of social relationships.
Community develops automatically.
Association is ‘deliberately formed.
Membership of association is informal.
Language is of great importance in human society.
An institution is a system of norms to achieve certain objectives.
One Word/Line Question Answers:
Who says that the group of persons, is society ?
A common man says that the group of persons is society.
If co-operation between the members of society comes to an end, what will happen ? , .
If co-operation between the members of society comes to an end, society will also come to an end.
On what factor is society based ?
Society is based on social relations.
Who said, “Society cannot move without similarities and differences.” ?
These words are of Westermarck.
In which society, totem is of great importance ?
Totem is of great importance in tribal society.
Why is society abstract in nature ?
Society is a web of social relationships and relations are abstract which we can’t see. That’s why society is abstract in nature.
What is society ?
In Sociology, society is the web of social relationships.
Give one characteristic of society.
Society is based on relations. It is also based on similarities and differences.
What is the base of society ?
Relations between individuals are the base of society.
What is Community ?
Community is a group of people in a geographical area where they spend whole of their lives.
Do all the human groups are Communities ?
No, they could be institutions or any other groups.
Give literal meaning of Community.
The word community is derived from the Latin word ‘Communities’ which means things held in common or shared.
How does community develop ?
Community develops automatically due to human interactions.
Is there any community feeling in community ?
Yes, community feeling does exist among the community members
Very Short Answer Type Questions
What is Association ?
When few individuals come together to form an association to achieve their objectives, it is known as association.
The meaning of society is not by the aggregate of people but is by the web of relationships which exist among the people and with which people are connected with each other. When relations are formed by the people, society is formed.
Definition of Society.
According to Morris Ginsberg, “Society is a collection of individuals united by certain relations or mode of behaviour which mark them off from others who do not enter into these relations or who differ from them in behaviour.”
Two features of Society.
(i) Society is based on relations. Society cannot be formed without the relations among the people.
(ii) Society also depends upon similarities and differences. Society cannot exist in their absence.
Society is abstract because it is a web of social relationships which we cannot see or touch. We can only feel them. Because we cannot touch them, that’s why society is abstract in nature.
Importance of language in society.
Language is of great importance in the society because it is the best method to express our views and ideals. In the absence of language, we cannot establish relations with any one and then society cannot be established.
When few individuals live in a group, in a particular geographical area, in an organised manner and spend whole of their lives without any particular motive, it is known as Community. We-feeling always exists in society.
Literal meaning of Community.
Community is an English word. It is made up of two Latin words ‘Com’ whose meaning is to live collectively and ‘Munus’ which means making. So its meaning is to make collective living.
Meaning of Association.
Association is based on particular motive and co-operation. When few individuals, for a particular objective, co-operate with each other and form an organisation, this, organised organisation is known as association.
Definition of Association.
According to Gillin and Gillin, “An association is a group of individuals united for a specific purpose and held together by recognized or sanctioned modes or procedure and behaviour.”
Short Answer Type Questions
Two definitions of Society.
(i) According to Maclver, “Society is the system of usages and procedure of authority and mutual aid, of many groupings and divisions of controls of human behaviour and of liberties. This everchanging complex system is called society. It is the web of social relationships.”
(ii) According to Giddings, “Society is the union itself, the organization is the sum of formal relations in which individuals are bound together.”
Characteristics of Society.
- Society is based on relationships.
- Society depends on likeness and differences.
- Humans of a Society are interdependent.
- Society is abstract because it is the web of social relationships.
- Most important feature of society is that it has the population.
- Cooperation and struggle are must for society.
Relationship between Individual and Society.
Greak philosopher Aristotle once said that man is a social animal. It means that the man lives in society and he is nothing without society. Until or unless he does not spend his life with other people, he remains at the lowest level of civilisation. Man needs to live a long life and for this, he is required to depend upon each other to fulfill his needs.
He needs to depend upon others for almost all of his needs ; like protection, food, education, other services etc. He alone cannot do any thing. With this, his existence is nothing without the society. They both are complimentary to each other and they are nothing without each other.
What is Community ?
In simple words when some people are living jointly for a particular purpose then that is called a community. It is a concrete concept. Community is not established with conscious efforts. It also not takes birth but it develops and it develops automatically. When people are living in an area and are doing social processes then community develops automatically.
Community has its own geographical area where members are fulfilling their needs themselves. Members of a community fulfil their every type of need because members have mutual exchange. When people cooperate with each other to fulfil their needs then we-feeling comes in them.
Characteristics of Community
- Every community has we-feeling.
- Members of the community have role feeling among them.
- Members of the community depend upon each other to fulfil their needs.
- Community is permanent and its members are not temporary but are permanent.
- Members of the community spend their life in community.
- Every community has its own geographical area in which it lives.
- Community doesn’t have any specific motive. It comes out spontaneously.
Association is based on cooperation. When some people are cooperating with each other for a specific purpose and make an organization then this organization is known as Association. Association has a definite purpose and anyone can leave it after the attainment of his objective.
Characteristics of Association.
- Association is a group of people.
- Association is formed for the fulfilment of a specific aim and is established with a lot of thpughts.
- Association takes birth and destroys.
- Membership of an association is based on the wish of the person.
- Membership of an association is formal.
- Every association selects some of its office bearers. .
- Every association has some definite rules.
Long Answer Type Questions
Define Society. Give its characteristics.
Definitions of society given by different sociologists .are given below :
1. According to Maclver, “Society is the system of usages and procedures, of authority and mutual aid, of many groupings and divisions of controls of human behaviour and of liberties. This ever-changing complex system we call society. It is the web of social relationships.”
2. According to Giddings, “Society is the union itself, the organization is the sum of formal’ relations in which individuals are bound together.”
3. According to Talcot Parsons, “Society may be defined as total complex of human relationships in so far as they grow out of action in terms of means and relationship intrinsic or symbolic.”
4. According to Cooley, “Scfciety is the complex of forms or processes each of which
is living and growing by interaction with the others, the whole being so unified that what takes place in one part affects all the rest.”
5. According to Green, “A society is a larger group to which any individual belongs.”
6. According to Reuter, “An abstract term that connotes the complex of interrelations that exist between and among the people.”
After looking at these given definitions we can say that these definitions are of two types.
The first type is of functional definitions and the second type is of structural definitions. From functional aspect we can define society as a web of groups in which people have complimentary relations, which help the people to do their functions of life and will help the people to fulfil their wishes by living with them. From structural aspect society is a social culture of customs, habits, institutions, wishes etc.
In this way society has been defined from functional and structural aspect that it has been made by mutual relationships of humans and with that it is a system or web, not only the collection of people.
1. Society is based on relationships. According to Maclver and Page, “Society is the web of social relationships.” It means that society is based on social relationships. Why the word Web’ is used here ? Because thousands of relationships exist in society. Just in one family more than 15 types of relations exist. From this we can imagine that how many types of relations are there in society.
Society is not just a collection of humans. For the formation of society some type of relations should be there. But here one” thing should be kept in mind that these relations should be complimentary. If these relations are not complimentary then society cannot be made. Social relations exist in every type of society and among all humans because the relations of humans Are based on mutual consciousness.
2. Society depends upon likeness and differences. Society depends both upon likeness and differences. Without them society cannot exist. Yet they both are opposite to each other but they cannot live without each other. Sometimes uniformity comes in society and sometimes differences come in -society and that’s why they are complimentary to each other.
Social relations can be established if there will be some type of uniformity in them because without this they cannot attract each other and society cannot be formed. Except this differences are also necessary.
3. Interdependence. For the,existence of society interdependence is a necessary element. It is necessary for humans to keep relations with other persons to fulfil their needs because it is not possible for every person to do all of his works. He has to depend upon others. The way in which man grows his dependence upon others also increases and his needs also start to increase. In this way interdependence is a necessary element of. society.
4. Society is abstract. Society is abstract because it is the web of relationships. We neither can see these relations and nor can touch them. We can only feel them. Because 4ve cannot touch them and that’s why they don’t have any concrete form. That’s ,why they are abstract. Because relations are abstract, that’s why the society made by relations is also abstract.
5. Population. The most important element of the society is humans. Without humans society cannot be made. If humans will not be there then who will establish relations and how society will be formed. Without the existence of humans, the existence of society is impossible. That’s why population is a necessary factor.
For population many things are required like availability of enough food, protection of population from every type of problem and the continuation of population and society because if the population will not continue then one day will come when everyone will come to an end. In this way without population, the existence of society is impossible.
6. Cooperation and conflict are a must for society. The way in which likes and differences are necessary for the existence of society, in that same way cooperation and conflict are also necessary for the existence of society. Cooperation is a necessary element for the formation of society. Humans live in society and they depend upon each other.
This interdependence is there only if there will be some cooperation among them. For the upbringing of a child many hands play an important role and it depends upon cooperation. Family runs if husband and wife cooperate with each other. In this way in every part of society cooperation is required. In the same way conflict is also necessary. To live man has to struggle with many forces and has to struggle in life.
What do you mean by association ? Explain it with definitions and characteristics.
Man is a social animal and as a social animal he has some basic needs. Man does a lots of efforts to fulfil his basic needs. He does three types of efforts.
1. First effort is that he should fulfil his needs alone and without any one’s help. But in today’s modem age it is impossible to live alone and to fulfil all the needs alone.
2. Second way is that he should fulfil his needs by snatching things from others. But it is not possible to fulfil Ms needs by snatching things from the others because this way is non-social and while living in human society he cannot adopt this type of method.
3. The third and the best method is that man should fulfil his needs while living in the society by cooperating with others because this is the base of life. Association is also based on this co-operation. When some people cooperate with each other for a specific purpose and make an organization then this organized organization is known as association.
Association has a definite purpose and any one can leave it after the attainment of his objective. Natural and the social needs of man force him to five in society. Like animals, humans do not have just physical needs but they have other important social needs also which must be fulfilled. In this way when different persons of a society cooperate with each other to fulfil their needs then an association is formed.
Here one thing should be kept in mind that man can leave tMs association after the attainment of his objectives.
1. According to Bogardus, “An Association is usually a working together of people to achieve some purpose.”
2. According to Ginsberg, “An association is a group of social beings related to one another by the fact that they possess or have instituted in common an organization with a view of securing a specific end or specific ends.”
3. According to Gillin and Gillin, “An association is a group of individuals united for a specific purpose and held together by recognised or sanctioned modes or procedure and behaviour.”
From the given definitions it is clear that Association has three main bases:
1. Association is a group of people.
2. This organization is based on cooperation.
3. It fulfil? some of-our needs.
In this way association cannot fulfil all of our needs. In short when people cooperate with each other in an organized and thoughtful way for the attainment of any particular aim then an association is formed.
Characteristics of Association:
1. Association is a group of people. Association is established bysome persons because of which it is known as a group. In this way association is concrete because humans are concrete.
2. Thoughtful establishment. Association does not take place spontaneously like community. It is formed for the fulfilment of any specific aim and is established with a lot of thoughts.
3. Definite aim. Association has a definite aim. Association does not fulfil all the needs of our social life but it fulfils some of our needs and it protects the interests of its members.
4. Association takes birth and comes to an end. Nature of association is temporary because it is established for the attainment of some of our specific aims and after the attainment of those aims, need of association also comes to an end. That’s why it takes .birth and comes to an end.
5. Membership is based on wish. Association is a willful organization. Any one can become member of any association according to his wish and he can leave it at anytime. It is so because when man feels that association is useful for him then he takes its membership and when he feels that his hims are attained then he leaves
6. Formal membership. The membership of an association is formal. Whenever any person wants then he can take its membership and whenever he wants he can leave it but for this he has to resign from its membership. He has to give membership fee also.
7. Selection of office bearers. Every association selects some of its officers like a chairman, deputy chairman, secretary, cashier etc. for conducting and performing its functions. All these are selected for a specific period.
8. Every association has some definite rules. Every association makes some rules for doing its functions and every member has to work according to these rules.