Punjab State Board PSEB 11th Class Biology Book Solutions Chapter 4 Animal Kingdom Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.
PSEB Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 4 Animal Kingdom
PSEB 11th Class Biology Guide Animal Kingdom Textbook Questions and Answers
What are the difficulties that you would face in classification of animals, if common fundamental features are not taken into account?
The major difficulties in the classification of animals are on the following lines :
- Some show cellular level of organisation, some have tissue level and even some have organ system level of organisation.
- Regarding symmetry, some are radially symmetrical, while some have bilateral symmetry.
- Some have open circulatory system, while others have closed type.
- Regarding digestion, some animals have extracellular digestion, while others have intracellular digestion.
- In case of body cavity, some have true coelom while others are pseudocoelomates.
- Regarding reproduction, some have only asexual reproduction, while others reproduce both by sexual and asexual means.
So, these are difficulties that zoologists face in the classification of animals.
If you are given a specimen, what are the steps that you would follow to classify it?
If I am given an animal specimen, then I will classify it on the basis of fundamental features which are common to all animal types inspite of the presence of some major differences in the structure and form of animals. The features taken into consideration during classification of animal are as follows:
- The type of arrangement of cells.
- Body symmetry.
- Nature of coelom.
- Pattern of digestive system.
- Type of circulatory system.
- Type of methods of reproduction.
How useful is the study of the nature of body cavity and coelom in the classification of animals?
Presence or absence of a cavity between the body wall and the gut wall is very important in classification. The body cavity which is lined by, mesoderm, is called coelom.
- Animals possessing coelom are called coelomates, e.g., annelids, molluscs, arthropods, echinoderms, hemichordates and chordates.
- In some animals, the body cavity is not mesoderm, instead the mesoderm is present as scattered pouches in between the ectoderm and endoderm. Such a body cavity is called pseudocoelom and the animals possessing them are called pseudocoelomates, e.g., Aschelminthes.
- The animals in which the body cavity is absent are known as acoelomates, e.g. , Platyhelminthes.
Distinguish between intracellular and extracellular digestion?
Differences between intracellular and extracellular digestion are as follows:
(i) Intracellular Digestion: It occurs inside the living cells with the help of lysosomal enzymes. Food particle is taken in through endocytosis. It forms a phagosome which fuses with a lysosome. The digested material pass into the cytoplasm. The undigested matter is throw out by exocytosis. It occurs in Amoeba, Paramecium, etc.,
(ii) Extracellular Digestion: In case of coelentrates digestion occurs in gastrovascular cavity. This cavity has gland cells which secret digestive enzymes over the food. The partially digested fragmented food particles are ingested by nutritive cells. It occurs in Hydra, Aurelia, etc.
What is the difference between direct and indirect development?
In direct development the embryo directly develops into an adult, while in indirect development there is an intermediate larval stage. Certain members of arthropods show larval stage of development.
What are the peculiar features that you find in parasitic platyhelminthes?
Hooks and suckers are present in the parasitic forms. They are parasitic flatworms commonly called flukes. The body is unsegmented leaf like, which is covered by a thick living tegument. There is no epidermis. The mouth is anterior and is armed with suckers for attachment in the host. Life history includes larval stage and involves more than one hosts.
Examples : Fasciola (the liver fluke), Schistosoma (the blood fluke.)
What are the reasons that you can think of for the arthropods to constitute the largest group of the animal kingdom?
Arthropods constitute the largest group of the animal kingdom. It is estimated that the Arthropoda population of the world is approximately a billion (1018) individuals, in terms of species diversity, number of individuals and geographical distribution. It is the most successful phylum on the Earth that have ever existed. Arthropods are equipped with jointed appendages, which are variously adapted for walking, swimming, feeding, sensory reception and defence. The appendages of abdomen are associated with locomotion, reproduction and in some cases with defence as well.
The appendages of head are related to defence, whereas those of thorax are mainly associated with locomotion. These features are responsible for its large diversity.
Water vascular system is the characteristic of which group of the following?
Echinodermata have the water vascular system.
‘All vertebrates are chordates but all chordates are not vertebrates’.’Justify the statement.
Notochord is a characteristic feature of all chordates. The members of sub-phylum – Vertebrata possess notochord during the embryonic stage. But in adults the notochord is replaced by a cartilaginous or bony vertebral column. Whereas in member of other Sub-phyla of Chordata the notochord remain as such. The urochordate and cephalochordates retain the notochord during their entire life cycle. Thus, the absence of notochord in adult vertebrates suggest that all vertebrates are chordates but all chordates are not vertebrates.
How important is the presence of air bladder in Pisces?
In fishes, air bladder regulates buoyancy and helps in floating in water. If it is absent, animals need to swim constantly to avoid sinking.
What are the modifications that are observed in birds that help them fly?
Flight adaptations in birds are as follows :
- Boat-shaped body helps to propel through the air easily.
- Feathery covering of body to reduce the friction of air.
- Holding the twigs automatically by hindlimbs.
- Extremely powerful muscles that enables the wings to work during flight.
- Bones are light, hollow and provide more space for muscle attachment. Presence of pneumatic bones which reduce the weight of body and help in flight.
- The first four thoracic vertebrae are fused to form a furculum for walking of the wings.
- Lungs are solid and elastic and have associated air sacs.
- The power of accomodation of eyes is well developed due to the presence of comb-like structure pecten.
- A single left ovary and oviduct to reduce the body weight.
Could the number of eggs or young ones produced by an oviparous and viviparous mother be equal? Why?
The number of eggs or young ones produced by an oviparous or viviparous mother cannot be equal. An oviparous mother gives rise to more number of eggs as some of them die during hatching and as they have to pass through a large number of developmental stages before becoming an adult. On the other hand, a viviparous mother gives rise to fewer number of young ones because there are less chances of their death. Moreover, they did not have to pass through any larval stage.
Segmentation in the body is first observed in which of the following:
Segmentation in the body is first observed in Annelida. This phenomenon is known as metamerism.
Match the following:
|A. Operculum||1. Ctenophora|
|B. Parapodia||2. Mollusca|
|C. Scales||3. Porifera|
|D. Comb plates||4. Reptilia|
|E. Radula||5. Annelida|
|F. Hairs||6. Cyclostomata and Chondrichthyes|
|G. Choanocytes||7. Mammalia|
|H. Gill slits||8. Osteichthyes|
|A. Operculum||8. Osteichthyes|
|B. Parapodia||5. Annelida|
|C. Scales||4. Reptilia|
|D. Comb plates||1. Ctenophora|
|E. Radula||2. Mollusca|
|F. Hairs||7. Mammalia|
|G. Choanocytes||3. Porifera|
|H. Gill slits||6. Cyclostomata and Chondrichthyes|
Prepare a list of some animals that are found parasitic on human heings.
A list of parasitic animals on human beings:
|Parasite||In Part of Human Body|
|Trichomonas vaginalis||Vagina of human female|
|Ascaris lumbricoides||Small intestine|
|Wuchereria bancrofti||Lymphatic and muscular system|
|Fasciola hepatica||Liver and bile ducts|