PSEB 9th Class Science Notes Chapter 13 Why Do We Fall Ill

This PSEB 9th Class Science Notes Chapter 13 Why Do We Fall Ill will help you in revision during exams.

PSEB 9th Class Science Notes Chapter 13 Why Do We Fall Ill

→ According to WHO, health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely an absence of disease or infirmity.

→ Health is a state of being well enough to function well physically, mentally, and socially.

→ Good health is characterized by – the absence of disease, free from social and psychological tensions, self-confidence, and efficient working.

→ Good health brings all-around progress and is the real wealth of an individual.

→ Good health is adversely affected by – overpopulation, environmental pollution, poverty, ignorance, unhealthy sexual life, etc.

PSEB 9th Class Science Notes Chapter 13 Why Do we Fall Ill

→ Personal health includes four aspects: Personal cleanliness, exercise, rest, and healthy habits.

→ Basic conditions for maintaining good health are a Balanced diet; proper habits; exercise and relaxation habits, clean food, air, and water; avoiding hazardous substances; proper education, etc.

→ Different organs of different systems show interactions and interdependence.

→ The supply of food is a must for the proper functioning of organs to keep a person healthy.

→ Diseases are classified as acute or chronic, depending on their duration.

→ The disease may be due to infectious or non-infectious causes.

→ Infectious agents belong to different categories of organisms and may be unicellular and microscopic or multicellular.

→ On the basis of period of occurrence, diseases are of two types: Congenital (inborn diseases e.g. Haemophilia, Albinism) and acquired (during one’s own life span) diseases.

→ Acquired diseases are of two types on the basis of their communication: Communicable (which can be transmitted from diseased person to healthy persons) and Non-communicable diseases.

→ Communicable diseases are also called infectious diseases as these occur due to successful infection of the pathogenic (disease-causing) micro-organisms.

PSEB 9th Class Science Notes Chapter 13 Why Do we Fall Ill

→ Infectious diseases can be prevented by public health hygiene measures that reduce exposure to infectious agents.

→ Common examples of diseases caused by viruses are common cold, influenza, dengue fever, and AIDS.

→ Typhoid fever, T.B., cholera, and anthrax are caused by bacteria.

→ Skin infections are caused by fungi.

→ Malaria, Kala Azar, sleeping sickness are caused by protozoans.

→ Ascariasis and elephantiasis are caused by worms.

→ AIDS, Syphilis, and Gonorrhoea are sexually transmitted diseases.

→ Principles of Prevention: Following three limitations are normally confronted while treating an infectious disease:

  • If a person has a disease, his/her body functions are damaged and may never recover completely.
  • Treatment will take time, which means that person suffering from a disease is likely to be bedridden for some time even if given proper treatment.
  • The person suffering from an infectious disease can serve as the source from where the infection may spread to other people.
  • It is because of such reasons that the prevention of diseases is better than their cure.

PSEB 9th Class Science Notes Chapter 13 Why Do we Fall Ill

→ Some common vaccines:

  • DPT vaccine for protection against diphtheria, whooping cough, and tetanus.
  • BCG vaccine for protection against tuberculosis.
  • Polio (OPV) vaccine.
  • Typhoid vaccine.
  • Measles vaccine.
  • TT vaccine against tetanus.
  • Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B for protection against jaundice.

→ Pulse Polio is an immunization campaign established by the Government of India in 1994 to eradicate poliomyelitis (polio) in India by vaccinating annually all children under age five against polio.

→ These vaccines form the public health program of childhood immunization for preventing infectious diseases.

→ Infectious diseases can also be prevented by using immunisation.

→ Effective prevention of infectious diseases in the community requires that everyone should have access to public hygiene and immunisation.

→ Vaccine against Hepatitis A is also available in our country.

→ August 20 is observed as ‘Malaria Day’.

→ December 1 is observed as ‘World AIDS Day’.

→ March 24 is observed as ‘World TB Day’.

PSEB 9th Class Science Notes Chapter 13 Why Do we Fall Ill

→ The incidence of diarrhoeal disease is highest in Andhra and Orissa states.

→ Helicobacter pylori are responsible for peptic ulcers.

→ Bacteria Staphylococcus can cause acne.

→ Trypanosoma, a protozoan organism can cause sleeping sickness.

→ Health: It is a state of physical, mental, and social well-being.

→ Acute disease: Diseases that occur very rapidly, but occur for short period.

→ Chronic diseases: Diseases that last for long period and cause prolonged poor health.

→ Communicable diseases: These are transmitted from one man to another. These diseases are caused by viruses, Bacteria, Protozoa, Fungi, and Worms.

→ Non-Communicable diseases: The diseases which are not transmitted from an infected person to the other are called non-communicable diseases.

→ Antibodies: These are proteinic substances produced by the body in response to antigens and protect the body from damage.

PSEB 9th Class Science Notes Chapter 13 Why Do we Fall Ill

→ Malnutrition: Defective nutrition due to inadequate intake of nutrients or due to faulty digestion or absorption or metabolism.

→ Allergy: Hypersensitive condition of the body in response to certain substances is termed allergy.

→ Disease: Any condition which interferes with the normal functioning of the body.

→ Acquired diseases: Diseases developed during own life span.

→ Congenital diseases: Inborn diseases which occur from birth.

→ Vaccination: A preventive inoculation that prevents the occurrence of disease by stimulating the immune system.

→ Therapy: Treatment of diseases.

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